Everything about varicose veins: risk factors, symptoms, treatment, prevention

Diseases of the veins of the lower extremities are life threatening. The treatment of varicose veins cannot be left for later. Modern medicine copes with the development of the disease.

What are varicose veins

Blood stasis can form in the lower parts of the body. This is due to the movement of blood flow throughout the body. In the arteries, they move up and down. In the venous vessels - from the bottom up, which is much more difficult due to physical laws. In order for the flow to rise efficiently from the bottom, by nature, a person has been given a capillary valve. It works through the movement of the leg muscles. They shrink. This forces the blood flow upwards.

varicose veins in the legs

Varicose veins are a disease causing changes in the vascular structure, its stretching and the appearance of the lymph nodes. As a result, the valve mechanism does not work well and cannot close completely. A large flow of blood rushes into the damaged vessel, without completely "pushing" its excessive accumulation, and inflammation of the site occurs. Blood stagnation is formed.

Due to human anatomy, the vessels on the legs, in the area of the pelvic organs, receive the main load. The veins in the esophagus can be affected.

Varicose veins are a disease that has been known for a long time. From history, doctors have learned that the description of symptoms, the first attempts at treating the disease, date back to the time of Hippocrates' life. Both women and men suffer from the disease. The weaker sex is more often confronted with the first symptoms of the disease than the stronger sex. Acute forms are found in hospital, disability.

Rosacea is a type of varicose veins on the face. Blood clogs the veins in the neck. Intradermal manifestations are not dangerous, but they signal the appearance of problems in the vessels. There is a disease of the eyes, larynx, neck, fingers, shoulder. The ocular manifestation threatens with vision problems. The expansion of blood vessels in the oral cavity, enlargement of the veins in the neck, arms lead to aesthetic and physical problems.

Symptoms of varicose veins

The first signs of the disease may go unnoticed. The legs may swell in the lower leg area, there is a slight heaviness, especially at the end of the day. The contours of the veins are hidden from the eyes or are not visually enlarged. This is the deviousness of varicose veins. Treatment is recommended to start at an early stage, but most people don't care about the edema and how severe it is.

Patients seek help at a time when visual symptoms in the form of swollen black veins begin to appear on the body. At a later stage, other manifestations of varicose veins are added:

  • The legs tire quickly. The peak of fatigue is in the evening.
  • The swelling gets worse. May be accompanied by pain syndrome.
  • Periodic cramps appear in the muscles of the lower extremities.
  • A person notices that so-called cyanotic asterisks have appeared on the legs - the areas of the veins become noticeably darker, localized in certain areas of the skin. The veins swell, swell, swell.
  • The areas of the skin are irritated, prone to ulcers, eczema.
manifestations of varicose veins on the legs

The International Disease Classifier identifies 6 stages. Phlebologists, having collected information of a clinical nature, carried out the necessary research, diagnose the patient with varicose veins. Be sure to indicate the stage of development of the disease according to the classification:

  1. The so-called zero step. Only the primary symptoms appear as heaviness in the legs, minimal swelling.
  2. The first spider veins begin to appear.
  3. The veins dilate, begin to protrude from the surface of the skin.
  4. Swelling of the legs increases, pain syndrome joins.
  5. The skin of the legs changes color. It turns brown.
  6. The stage when varicose veins are considered neglected. It is characterized by the appearance of ulcerative manifestations, a burning sensation, the veins are strongly swollen.
  7. Trophic ulcers form. There is a risk of bleeding from a rupture.

To confirm the diagnosis, phlebologists are prescribed to do special tests using a tourniquet.

People who lead the wrong lifestyle start to experience the first signs of varicose veins in the early years. With age, without treatment, the progression of the disease cannot be avoided.

Risk factors for developing varicose veins

Varicose veins in the legs are a disease, the predisposition of which is hereditary. If a person has a family history of varicose veins, there is a risk of weakening the walls of the venous vessels. There are other factors that affect the onset and development of the disease, including those without genetic predisposition:

  • Sedentary lifestyle. Without movement, it is more difficult for the muscles to "push" the blood upwards.
  • Varicose veins in men are detected less often than in women. They are more likely to suffer from inflammation of the groin vein.
  • The work on which a person is constantly seated is motionless.
  • Strong physical activity with heavy lifting.
  • Inconvenient shoes. Wear heels.
  • With age, the risk of developing varicose veins increases.
  • Frequent pregnancies.
  • Smoking, alcohol abuse.
  • Restricted movement, uncomfortable and oversized clothing.
  • Frequent washing in a hot bath, steam bath.
  • High body weight.
  • Poor and unhealthy food.
  • Frequent constipation.
a sedentary lifestyle as a cause of the development of varicose veins

Many factors advance the disease. Without health checks, a person runs the risk of serious venous problems.

Age and work

A child, a teenager, faced with varicose veins, needs urgent treatment. The reasons for the development of the disease at this age are as follows:

  • Congenital disease;
  • infection;
  • pathology of the foot structure;

The characteristic symptoms of the disease at an early age have their own characteristics and differ from the symptoms of the disease in adults. The disease begins to manifest itself with a superficial change in the skin of the arms, legs, threads, thickenings appear. Can be acute or lasting. As the baby grows, the lower limbs change. The risk of developing thrombophlebitis is possible. Then the skin of the hands is affected by the disease.

The disease will not go away on its own. The prognosis is favorable, without complications, only with treatment. It is impossible to prevent the formation of active pathogenesis with folk remedies. The consequence will be the transition of the disease to a chronic form.

In adults, the vessels become less elastic. Blood flow collects in places that are difficult to pass, dilating blood vessels. The valve stops working properly and the inflammatory process begins.

Work associated with prolonged sitting or a constant static position in the same place is an unfavorable factor. Due to the lack of constant movement of the blood, it is more difficult to ascend to the top. The vascular valve begins to wear out. A person receives the first signs of the development of varicose veins.

Way of life

At the first manifestations of varicose veins, the doctor prescribes an adjustment in the patient's lifestyle. Lifetime recommendations. This will slow down the development of varicose veins:

  • It is necessary to abandon the tight and tight veins in the legs of clothes. It should not interfere with the normal movement of blood in the body.
  • It is forbidden to sit cross-legged, bend them under you, squeeze the knee area. This causes the appearance of blood congestion.
  • Minimize skin exposure to high temperatures. Hot bath, sauna, bathing prohibited. A contrast shower is recommended.
  • Prolonged exposure to the sun is not permitted.
  • Minimize heavy lifting. If this is not possible, wearing compression underwear for the legs is indicated.
  • Different types of hair removal on the body, where heating takes place, are prohibited. These include electrolysis, hot waxing.
  • Drink a minimum of fluid. On average 2 liters. Standards depend on weight, lifestyle. Tea, coffee, fruit juices are not liquids that replenish the body's water reserves. They are not taken into account.
  • Diet and nutrition. Eating fiber is essential for preventing constipation. The diet should include foods containing ascorbic acid, vitamin E and P vitamins.
  • To help the outflow of blood from the lower limbs during the day. Just lift your legs above your head for 30 minutes. For convenience, use a sofa. Sleep is recommended with a roller under the feet. It improves blood circulation.
  • Watch your weight. The extra pounds put pressure on the lower limbs, blood vessels. This stimulates the development of congestion, inflammation in the veins.
  • Do a special massage.
foot massage for varicose veins

Varicose veins are a long term disease. The development of varicose veins is stopped by observing the basic rules of the way of life with a disease.

Hormonal therapy

Only a gynecologist can prescribe hormone therapy, select contraceptives for the weaker sex. If a patient is suspected of having varicose veins, she is referred for a consultation with a phlebologist and the necessary tests. This is because certain hormones cause vasodilation and increase blood pressure. Estrogen is a popular ingredient in female pills. Its excess in the body leads to strong blood clotting. Passage through the veins is difficult. Blood clots and inflammatory processes appear.

Without the supervision of a doctor, the appointment of hormonal therapy is dangerous for a woman.

How to treat varicose veins

Before prescribing treatment, the doctor makes diagnoses and identifies the stage of the disease. Methods of treating varicose veins can be combined with each other:

  • Ointments, creams, lifestyle adjustments, the introduction of gentle physical activity. Treatment will be effective in the early stages of the disease.
  • Traditional methods of treating varicose veins at home are presented at the first manifestations of the disease. In addition, they can be used in combination with the main method of combating the disease, chosen by the doctor.
  • Sclerotherapy. The method is based on the removal of the affected vein without surgery. This is achieved by introducing a special drug that sticks the walls of the vessel together. Blood flow to this area is stopped and it is distributed to healthy veins. The effect of the procedure is long term, sometimes lifelong. It is difficult to get a full cure at advanced stages.
  • Coagulation. The treatment method allows you to remove the affected vein with a laser. This procedure is assimilated in degree of effectiveness to the surgical excision of the vessel. Not used in advanced cases.
  • In the later stages of the disease, when ulcers, eczema appear, a surgical method of treatment is used. Excision of the affected vessel occurs with a small incision. The operation does not leave scars, scars. Relapses can occur.
the phlebologist treats varicose veins in the legs

Doctors recommend not to delay treatment of the veins in the legs. In the initial stages, simple methods can be omitted. It will keep you healthy.

Physical exercise

Varicose veins on the legs do not exclude physical activity. Doctors recommend that you practice authorized sports and exercises for:

  • improve blood circulation in the extremities;
  • strengthening of blood vessels;
  • strengthen overall health.

There are basic rules for dealing with an authorized dispute for varicose veins. Their respect is obligatory:

  • Remember to drink water during class. The body loses a lot of fluid. From this comes the thickening of the blood.
  • The muscles of the upper torso can be trained without significant restrictions. The exception is lifting weights from a standing position.
  • Do the exercises preferably sitting or lying down.
  • If possible, use compression stockings for training.

Sports are divided into permitted, eligible with restriction, prohibited. Those that are indicated for the disease include:

  • Swimming. Type of safe physical activity. Breathing during exercise improves blood circulation, minimizing stress on the joints.
  • While walking. A 30-minute walk at a rapid pace improves blood circulation, relieves stagnant foci in the lower extremities. It is forbidden to walk along the roads, in shoes unsuitable for this.
  • Cycling. The legs are constantly in motion.
cycling as a permitted sport for varicose veins

Other physical activities are given with minor restrictions. Sports that doctors consider authorized after examination for patients with varicose veins:

  • Run. It is compulsory to wear special running shoes. Specialized control over technique is required.
  • Fitness room. The doctor, the trainer will select a set of exercises that are not prohibited.

Sports are prohibited, in which there are contraindicated elements for people with varicose veins of the legs. Doctors impose a lifetime ban on them:

  • squats;
  • working with heavy weights;
  • jumping, sports where the feet constantly strike the surface of the ground, the hall, the stadium.

Varicose veins are a contraindication to professional sport. Doctors do not allow you to play strenuous sports, even when they are licensed.

Compression underwear

Wearing medical underwear is indicated in the postoperative period in order to prevent internal damage to blood vessels, reduce the risk of developing the disease. It is constantly worn in the later stages of the disease. The doctor indicates the desired degree of compression, the type of clothing:

  • Socks. Protects the veins at the ankle, below the knee.
  • Low. Help those who suffer from varicose veins in the region going up to the middle of the thigh.
  • Tights. Suitable for pregnant women, those who suffer from lesions of the upper femoral sections.

It is necessary to choose a medical device of strict size. The compression class starts from 1, goes up to 4. The last - for the more advanced stages of the disease. Compression class 0 was created to prevent the appearance of varicose veins. Models are available for both sexes: male and female.


Treatment in the early stages of the manifestation of the disease is carried out with the help of special drugs - venotonics. They prevent blood thickening, strengthen the walls of blood vessels. They have a lasting effect on the vascular system. The remedy is taken in the courses prescribed by a doctor.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed by doctors. The base of acetylsalicylic acid helps to thin the blood flow, to eliminate stagnant foci.

Ointments, heparin-based gels are effective in the early stages. They will relieve heaviness, swelling, fatigue of the lower limbs.


Surgeons and phlebologists advise not to bring varicose veins to a state where drug treatment does not help, an operation is necessary. If the disease progresses to the stage where deep vein injury has started, surgical removal of the vessel is prescribed.

The operation is performed under local anesthesia in a short time. After that, there are no scars, scars. You will need to wear compression stockings for at least 4 weeks.

varicose vein surgery in the legs

Operations that are not related to varicose veins are dangerous if you do not use a compression cloth in the postoperative period. Varicose veins after surgery may reappear in this case.


Office workers, women and pregnant women are at risk of contracting the disease. As a preventive measure, it is recommended to follow the basic rules of a healthy life:

  • get rid of alcohol, cigarettes;
  • walk a lot in comfortable shoes;
  • reduce the number of workouts with heavy weights;
  • drink plenty of clean water;
  • eat a variety of foods;
  • perform preventive care for tired legs;
  • correct vitamin deficiency.

At the first signs of heaviness in the legs, puffiness, it is recommended to consult a phlebologist. He will do the necessary research. He will teach you how to treat a patient with varicose veins. If the person is healthy, the doctor will give you a list of recommendations on how to prevent the appearance of varicose veins.